Bikini Atoll Nuclear Target Fleet

by Peter Fear, The Scuba Doctor — November 2012

A series of two atom bomb weapon tests were conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in mid-1946. The follow listings provide details of most of the naval vessels in the Operation Crossroads nuclear test target arrays, plus what happened to them:

The vessels marked in bold are those known or believed to be underwater in Bikini Lagoon.

Carriers

  • USS Saratoga (CV-32) Lexington-class aircraft carrier — She survived the Test Able blast, an air burst on 1 July 1946 at Bikini Atoll, with only minor damage, but was damaged beyond repair by the Test Baker blast on 25 July 1946, an underwater atom bomb blast which was detonated under LSM-60 500 metres (500 yards) from the carrier. Salvage efforts were prevented by radioactivity, and seven-and-one-half hours after the blast, with her funnel collapsed across her deck, Saratoga slipped, stern first, beneath the surface of Bikini Lagoon.
  • USS Independence (CVL-22) light aircraft carrier — Assigned as a target vessel for the Bikini atomic bomb tests, she was placed within one-half-mile of ground zero for the 1 July 1946 explosion. The veteran ship did not sink, however (though her funnels and island were crumpled by the blast), and after taking part in another explosion 25 July 1946 was taken to Kwajalein Atoll and decommissioned 28 August 1946. The highly radioactive hulk was later taken to Pearl Harbor and San Francisco for further tests and was finally scuttled off the coast of San Francisco, California, on 29 January 1951. Controversy has subsequently arisen about the sinking of the Independence, as it is claimed she was loaded with barrels of radioactive waste at the time of her sinking, and that the waste has subsequently contaminated the wildlife refuge and commercial fisheries associated with the Farallon Islands.

Battleships

  • USS Arkansas (BB-33) Wyoming-class dreadnought battleship — On 1 July 1946, the Arkansas was exposed to an air burst in the Test Able atomic test, but survived with extensive shock damage to her upperworks, while her hull and armored turrets were little damaged. On 25 July 1946, the battleship was sunk by the underwater nuclear Test Baker at Bikini Atoll. Unattentuated by air, the shock was "transmitted directly to underwater hulls", and Arkansas, only 250 yards from the epicenter, appeared to have been "crushed as if by a tremendous hammer blow from below". It appears that the wave of water from the blast capsised the ship, which was then hammered down into the shallow bottom by the descent of the water column thrown up by the atomic blast.
  • HIJMS Nagato Japanese battleship — In the atom bomb airburst Test Able on 1 July 1946 she was 1,640 yards from ground zero and was not severely damaged. In Test Baker, an underwater atom bomb explosion on 25 July 1946 she was severely damaged, eventually capsised and sank five days later.
  • USS Nevada (BB-36) Nevada-class battleship — Designated aim point for Test Able air-dropped atomic bomb, she was painted an "ugly" reddish-orange to help the bombardier's aim. However, even with the high visibility color scheme, the bomb fell about 1,600 metres (1,700 yd) off-target, exploding above the light carrier Independence instead. Nevada also survived Test Baker, but she was damaged and extremely radioactive. Nevada was then towed to Kwajalein Atoll by USS Preserver (ARS-8), decommissioned on 29 August 1946, and then towed to Pearl Harbor. After she was thoroughly examined at Pearl Harbor, her final sortie came on 31 July 1948 when Iowa and two other vessels used Nevada as a gunnery target for practice. The three ships did not sink Nevada, so she was given a coup de grāce with an aerial torpedo hit amidships.
  • USS New York (BB-34) New York-class battleship — Surviving the Test Able surface blast on 1 July 1946 and the underwater Test Baker explosion on 25 July 1946, she was taken into Kwajalein Atoll and decommissioned there on 29 August 1946. Later towed to Pearl Harbor, she was studied during the next two years, and on 8 July 1948 was towed out to sea some 40 mi (35 nmi; 64 km) and there sunk after an 8-hour pounding by ships and planes carrying out full-scale battle maneuvers with new weapons.
  • USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) super-dreadnought battleship — After surviving the Operation Crossroads atomic bomb test at Bikini Atoll, she was then towed to Kwajalein Atoll where she decommissioned on 29 August 1946. She remained in Kwajalein Lagoon for radiological and structural studies until 10 February 1948, when she was sunk stern first off Kwajalein Atoll.

Cruisers

  • IJN Sakawa Agano class light cruiser — The detonation of the Test Able atom bomb at Bikini Atoll occurred 450 metres (490 yards) above and slightly to starboard of IJN Sakawa's stern. The blast caused IJN Sakawa to burn fiercely for twenty-four hours before she eventually sank. The second atom bomb, Test Baker, was an underwater shot about 150 metres (500 feet) away from the sunken Sakawa.
  • Prinz Eugen Admiral Hipper-class heavy cruiser — The ship survived two atomic bomb blasts at Bikini Atoll, Test Able, on 1 July 1946, and Test Baker on 25 July 1946. Prinz Eugen was thoroughly contaminated with radioactive fallout, but suffered no structural damage from the explosions. The irradiated ship was towed to the Kwajalein Atoll in the central Pacific, where a small leak went unrepaired. By late December 1946, the ship was in very bad condition. On 21 December 1946, the ship began to list severely. A salvage team could not be brought to Kwajalein Atoll in time, so the US Navy attempted to beach the ship to prevent her from sinking, but on 22 December 1946, Prinz Eugen capsised and sank. Her main battery gun turrets fell out of their barbettes when the ship rolled over. The ship's stern, including her propeller assemblies, remain visible above the surface of the water.
  • USS Pensacola (CA-24) Pensacola-class heavy cruiser — She survived the atom bomb tests of 1 July and 25 July 1946. On 24 August 1946, she was taken in tow for Kwajalein Atoll where she decommissioned on 26 August. Her hulk was turned over to the custody of Joint Task Force One for radiological and structural studies. On completion of these studies, her hulk was sunk on 10 November 1948 off the Washington coast in 1,400 fathoms.
  • USS Salt Lake City (CA-25) Pensacola-class heavy cruiser — Surviving two atomic bomb blasts at Bikini Atoll, she was decommissioned on 29 August 1946 and laid up to await ultimate disposal. She was sunk by torpedoes as a target hull on 25 May 1948, 130 mi (110 nmi; 210 km) off San Diego southern California in 2,000 fathoms.

Destroyers

  • USS Lamson (DD-367) Mehan-class destroyer — She was heavily damaged and sunk during the Test Able blast at Bikini Atoll on 1 July 1946. The test burst tore off the light topside superstructure, stacks and mainmast and smashed the bridge.
  • USS Anderson (DD-411) Sims-class destroyer — On 1 July 1946, the bomb used in Operation Crossroads Test Able blast sank Anderson in Bikini Lagoon at Bikini Atoll.
  • USS Conyngham (DD-371) Mahan-class destroyer — Steamed from Kwajalein Atoll to Pearl Harbor in September 1946, and then to San Francisco area, arriving on 22 October 1946. Destroyed by sinking 2 July 1948 off the California coast.
  • USS Mugford (DD-389) Bagley-class destroyer — Decommissioned 29 August 1946. Retained for experiments in decontamination, she was finally sunk off Kwajalein Atoll on 22 March 1948.
  • USS Ralph Talbot (DD-390) Bagley-class destroyer — Contaminated with fallout during the Operation Crossroads atom bomb tests, the destroyer was towed to Kwajalein Atoll where she was decommissioned 29 August 1946 and sunk, in deep water off Kwajalein Atoll, 8 March 1948.
  • USS Mayrant (DD-402) Benham-class destroyer — Surviving the two atom bomb tests, but too highly contaminated, Mayrant was decommissioned at Bikini Atoll on 28 August 1946. She was sunk 4 April 1948 off Kwajalein Atoll.
  • USS Trippe (DD-403) Benham-class destroyer — Test Baker made her so radioactive that it was unsafe to approach her. Trippe's radioactive contamination forced the Navy to keep her at Bikini Atoll where she was subjected to an intensive study. Trippe was decommissioned there on 28 August 1946. Over the next 18 months, her hull deteriorated to the point of making it almost impossible to keep her afloat. On 3 February 1948, she was towed to deep water off Kwajalein Atoll and sunk by gunfire.
  • USS Rhind (DD-404) Benham-class destroyer — Surviving the atom bomb tests on 1 and 25 July 1946, but highly contaminated, Rhind was decommissioned 26 August 1946 and moved to Kwajalein Atoll where, after radiological clearance had been given and further examinations had been made, she was sunk on 22 March 1948.
  • USS Stack (DD-406) Benham-class destroyer — She survived the atom bomb tests at Bikini Atoll and was decommissioned in the Marshall Islands on 29 August 1946. Stack was sunk by gunfire near Kwajalein Atoll on 24 April 1948.
  • USS Wilson (DD-408) Benham-class destroyer — Made radioactive by the Operation Crossroads atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll, Wilson was decommissioned in August 1946 and sunk in deep water off Kwajalein Atoll on 8 March 1948.
  • USS Hughes (DD-410) Sims-class destroyer — Following the Operation Crossroads atom bomb testst she was towed to sea and sunk off Kwajalein Atoll on 16 October 1948.
  • USS Mustin (DD-413) Sims-class destroyer — She was decommissioned on 29 August 1946 after use as an atom bomb testing target but remained at Bikini Atoll and was destroyed by gunfire on 18 April 1948 off Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands.
  • USS Wainwright (DD-419) Sims-class destroyer — She survived both blasts at Bikini Atoll in July 1946. On 29 August 1946, she was decommissioned. Wainwright remained at Bikini Atoll for almost two years under intermittent inspection by scientists evaluating the effects of the Operation Crossroads tests. Finally, she was towed out to sea in July 1948 and sunk as a target off Kwajalein Atoll on 5 July 1948.

Submarines

  • USS Apogon (SS-308) Balao-class submarine — She was lightly damaged during the Test Able blast and sunk at Bikini Atom by the Test Baker atom bomb on 25 July 1946.
  • USS Pilotfish (SS-386) Balao-class submarine — Submerged for Test Baker, USS Pilotfish was moored at a depth of 51 metres (168 feet) at a range of 332 metres (363 yards) from the point of the atom bomb blast.
  • USS Skipjack (SS-184) Salmon-class submarine — Skipjack was sunk as a target vessel in the second atomic bomb test at Bikini Atoll in July 1946. She was later raised on 2 September 1946 and towed to Pearl Harbor, and then to San Francisco. On 11 August 1948, she was again sunk as a target off the coast of California in 700 fathoms by aircraft rockets.
  • USS Searaven (SS-196) Sargo-class submarine — Raised from submerged position on 29 July 1946, after Baker shot she escaped the tests with negligible damage. Steamed to Pearl Harbor from Kwajalein Atoll and then to San Francisco for radiological study, arriving there on 22 October 1946. The submarine was sunk as a target off the California coast on 11 September 1948.
  • USS Tuna (SS-203) Tambor-class submarine — Surfaced on 27 July 1946 after the Test Baker shot, Tuna steamed to Kwalalein Atoll on 22 August 1946 en route to Pearl Harbor, and then San Francisco. She was retained as a radiological laboratory unit and subjected to numerous radiological and structural studies while remaining at Mare Island. Scuttled off the West Coast on 24 September 1948, in 1,160 fathoms.
  • USS Skate (SS-305) Balao-class submarine — Although considerably damaged by the Test Able atom bomb blast, the submarine survived and was towed back to Pearl Harbor by USS Fulton (AS-11), where she was moored in an isolated berth. On 11 October 1946, salvage vessel USS Clamp (ARS-33) took Skate in tow and headed for San Francisco, and then to Mare Island Naval Shipyard where the submarine was inspected and then decommissioned on 11 December 1946. The submarine was destroyed on 5 October 1948, off the California coast in 515 fathoms.
  • USS Dentuda (SS-335) submarine — She underwent both atomic weapons tests with her crew safely away from their submarine, and returned to Pearl Harbor on 5 September 1946. On 7 October 1946, she got underway for Mare Island Naval Shipyard, arriving 14 October 1946. She was decommissioned on 11 December 1946 and stationed in the 12th Naval District for the training of members of the Naval Reserve. Sold for scrap on 20 January 1969.
  • USS Parche (SS-384) submarine — Parche survived both the airburst and the underwater bursts, coming through relatively undamaged. After decontamination, she proceeded to Mare Island Naval Shipyard at Vallejo, California. She was then decommissioned on 10 December 1946 and moved to join the moth ball fleet Alameda, California in March 1947. On 1 December 1962 her classification was changed to Auxiliary Submarine, AGSS-384 and assigned as a Naval Reserve Training Submarine in Oakland, California. Parche's name was stricken from the Navy List on 8 November 1969 and sold on 18 June 1970 for scrap. All that remains of her is the original conning tower barrel, bridge structure, shears, and upper gun from the war which remain enshrined at the Naval Submarine Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
  • Attack Transports

    • USS Gilliam (APA-57) Gilliam-class attack transport — The USS Gilliam was a target ship for the Operation Crossroads Test Able atom bomb blast at Bikini Atoll. On the morning of 1 July 1946 she was the first ship struck by the blast and sunk in Bikini Lagoon.
    • USS Carlisle (APA-69) Gilliam-class attack transport — She was sunk as a target ship for the Operation Crossroads Test Able atom bomb blast at Bikini Atoll on the morning of 1 July 1946.
    • USS Banner (APA-60) Gilliam-class attack transport — Banner was decommissioned 27 August 1946 and scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll on 16 February 1948.
    • USS Barrow (APA-61) Gilliam-class attack transport — Barrow lay at anchor 1,335 yards from "ground zero" for Test Able, and austained moderate damage. Reboarded by radiological teams, she was regarded as "Radiologically safe". Barrow's officers and men reembarked on 3 July 1946, and performed "routine activities" on board until again ordered on board Bexar on 24 July 1946. Two days later, anchored 2,000 yards from "ground zero" for test Test Baker, Barrow sustained heavy radiological damage. Decommissioned at Bikini Atoll on 28 August 1946, Barrow was taken to Kwajalein Atoll for radiological studies and observation before being scuttled just south of Kwajalein Atoll on 11 May 1948.
    • USS Banner (APA-60) Gilliam-class attack transport — Banner was decommissioned 27 August 1946 and scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll on 16 February 1948.
    • USS Barrow (APA-61) Gilliam-class attack transport — Barrow lay at anchor 1,335 yards from "ground zero" for Test Able, and austained moderate damage. Reboarded by radiological teams, she was regarded as "Radiologically safe". Barrow's officers and men reembarked on 3 July 1946, and performed "routine activities" on board until again ordered on board Bexar on 24 July 1946. Two days later, anchored 2,000 yards from "ground zero" for test Test Baker, Barrow sustained heavy radiological damage. Decommissioned at Bikini Atoll on 28 August 1946, Barrow was taken to Kwajalein Atoll for radiological studies and observation before being scuttled just south of Kwajalein Atoll on 11 May 1948.
    • USS Bracken (APA-64) Gilliam-class attack transport — She survived the atomic tests at Bikini Atoll and was maintained for radiological and structural studies until 10 March 1948 when she was towed to the open sea off Kwajalein Atoll and sunk.
    • USS Briscoe (APA-65) Gilliam-class attack transport — Following the atomic tests she was decommissioned at Bikini Atoll and maintained for two years for radiological and structural studies. Briscoe was destroyed by sinking 6 May 1948.
    • USS Brule (APA-66) Gilliam-class attack transport — Brule survived the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll and following the test period was decommissioned and maintained for radiological and structural studies. She was destroyed by sinking 11 May 1948.
    • USS Butte (APA-68) Gilliam-class attack transport — She survived the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll and was retained for structural and radiation study at Kwajalein Atoll until 12 May 1948 when she was disposed of by sinking.
    • USS Carteret (APA-70) Gilliam-class attack transport — She survived the Operation Crossroads atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. She was towed to Kwajalein Atoll for study and sunk there by the USS Toledo (CA-133) on 19 April 1948.
    • USS Catron (APA-71) Gilliam-class attack transport — She survived the Operation Crossroads atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll but was contaminated by radioactivity. She remained in the Pacific for radiological and structural study until sunk as a target by USS Atlanta (CL-104) off Kwajalein Atoll on 6 May 1948.
    • USS Cortland (APA-75) Gilliam-class attack transport — She survived the Operation Crossroads atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll, was granted radiological clearance in December 1946 and transferred to the U.S. Maritime Commission on 31 March 1948. Later sold for scrap.
    • USS Crittenden (APA-77) Gilliam-class attack transport — She suffered radiation and shock wave damage from the atom bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. She was taken to Kwajalein Atoll on 27 August 1946 and decommissioned the next day. After study, she was towed back to San Francisco on 1 January 1947. Later she was towed to sea by USS Tekesta (ATF-93) and sunk off the Farallone Islands, California coast by explosive tests on 6 October 1948, in 800 fathoms. Thus she provided for fisheries habitat.
    • USS Dawson (APA-79) Gilliam-class attack transport — After Operation Crossroads, Dawson was towed to Kwajalein Atoll where she was decommissioned 20 September 1946. She was retained there for radiological study until sunk by gunfire from USS Helena (CA-75) on 19 April 1948 in 2,290 fathoms.
    • USS Fallon (APA-81) Gilliam-class attack transport — Beached on Eneu Island, Bikini Atoll on 27 July 1946, after the Test Baker shot and then towed to Kwajalein Atoll. Scuttled off Kwajalein Atollon on 10 March 1948.
    • USS Fillmore (APA-83) Gilliam-class attack transport — She survived the Operation Crossroads atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. Steamed back to San Francisco arriving 5 November 1946. Fillmore then sailed for Norfolk, Virginia, a month later. She was decommissioned and transferred to the Maritime Commission 1 April 1948.
    • USS Gasconade (APA-85) Gilliam-class attack transport — She survived an atomic blast at Bikini Atoll and was decommissioned in the Marshall Islands 28 August 1946. In December 1946 she was taken in tow at Kwajalein Atoll for transfer to the United States, where she arrived San Francisco 27 January 1947. After undergoing structural and radioactivity tests, she was redesignated a target ship in March 1948. She was sunk by torpedoes 21 July 1948 in the Pacific Ocean off the southern California coast in 1,300 fathoms.
    • USS Geneva (APA-86) Gilliam-class attack transport — She was to be one of the target ships in Operation Crossroads Test Able on the morning of 1 July 1946 when the fourth atomic bomb to be exploded and the first ever detonated over water was to be dropped from a B-29. The attack transport survived the explosion and the huge column of water and steam that rose to 35,000 feet (11,000 m) and formed a mushroom-shaped cloud. Geneva was declared free of radioactivity the following day. She also survived Test Baker on 25 July 1946. That morning at 0835 an atomic bomb suspended below LSM-60 was exploded - the first to be detonated under water. Geneva was in normal operation 4 days after that explosion, steaming to Kwajalein Atoll 25 August 1946, then proceeding via Hawaii to San Francisco, where she arrived 5 November 1946. Geneva departed San Francisco on 4 December 1946, touched San Diego and transited the Panama Canal for Norfolk, Virginia, where she arrived on the 27 December 1946. She was returned to the Maritime Commission on 2 April 1947 and joined the National Defense Reserve Fleet at James River, Virginia. Geneva was transferred to Wilmington, North Carolina, in July 1955 and sold for scrap by the Maritime Administration on 2 November 1966.
    • USS Niagara (APA-87) Gilliam-class attack transport — Niagara survived the atomic explosions of Operation Crossroads. She departed Bikini Atoll on 21 August 1946 for Kwajalein Atoll and Pearl Harbor en route to San Francisco, arriving 16 September 1946. Niagara remained on the west coast until she departed San Diego 7 November 1946, steaming via the Panama Canal to Hampton Roads, Virginia. She arrived Norfolk, Virginia on 2 December 1946 and was decommissioned there 12 December 1946. After serving to test the effects of special conventional explosives in the Chesapeake Bay, Niagara was sold for scrapping on 5 February 1950 to the Northern Metals Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    LSTs (Landing Ships, Tank)

    • LST-52 — Sunk off Kwajalein Atoll in April 1948 by gunfire of USS Oakland (CL-95) in 2,280 fathoms.
    • LST-125 — Deliberately beached before Test Baker shot, then sunk by gunfire of USS Fall River (CA-131) off Bikini Atoll on 14 August 1946.
    • LST-133 — Sunk off Kwajalein Atoll on 11 May 1948.
    • LST-220 — Sunk off Kwajalein Atoll on 12 May 1948.
    • LST-545 — Sunk off Kwajalein Atoll on 12 May 1948.
    • LST-661 — Sunk off Kwajalein Atoll on 25 July 1948.

    LSMs (Landing Ships, Medium)

      USS LSM-60 landing ship, medium (LSM) amphibious assault ship — Used as the float to suspend a fission bomb underwater during the Operation Crossroads Test Baker at Bikini Atoll, becoming the first naval vessel to use a nuclear weapon. She was modified with a well through the cargo deck and hull, a derrick to lower the bomb through the well, and a large antenna to receive the detonation signal. On 25 July 1946, a standard Mk. 3A "Fat Man" type atomic bomb, nicknamed Helen of Bikini, placed in a watertight casing, was suspended 90 feet below LSM-60 in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. At 0835 local time the bomb was detonated, destroying LSM-60 and eight target ships, including USS Saratoga (CV-3). A seaman present claimed that "there was not one identifiable piece of the LSM-60 ever located", however a British naval constructor present reports he saw a 3-inch (7.6 cm) square piece of LSM-60 on the deck of a target ship afterward.

    LCTs (Landing Craft, Tank)

    • LCT-414 — Sunk by demolition charges at Bikini Atoll shortly after Test Baker shot.
    • LCT-1114 — Capsised by Test Baker shot and sunk by demolition charges at Bikini Atoll on 30 July 1946.
    • LCT-1175 — Sunk at Bikini by Test Baker shot on 25 July 1946.
    • LCT-1187 — Sunk by demolition charges at Bikini Atoll shortly after Test Baker shot.
    • LCT-1237 — Sunk by demolition charges at Bikini Atoll shortly after Test Baker shot.
    • LCT-412 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in September 1947.
    • LCT-705 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in September 1947.
    • LCT-746 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in March 1947.
    • LCT-812 — Sunk by demolition charges at Bikini Atoll shortly after Baker shot.
    • LCT-816 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in June 1947.
    • LCT-818 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in September 1947.
    • LCT-874 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in September 1947.
    • LCT-1013 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in September 1947.
    • LCT-1078 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in September 1947.
    • LCT-1112 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in September 1947.
    • LCT-1113 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in June 1947.

    Auxiliaries

    • ARDC-13 drydock — Sunk at Bikini Atoll by Test Baker shot on 6 August 1946.
    • YO-160 yard oiler — Sunk at Bikini Atoll by Test Baker shot on 25 July 1946.
    • YOG-83 — Beached at Kwajalein Atoll on 23 September 1946, and scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll on 16 September 1948.

    LCIs (Landing Craft, Infantry)

    • LCI-327 — Stranded at Bascombe (Mek) Island, Kwajalein Atoll, and destroyed there on 30 October 1947.
    • LCI-329 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll on 16 March 1948.
    • LCI-332 — Scuttled off Kwajalein Atoll in September 1947.
    • LCI-549 — Used at Kwajalein Atoll as patrol vessel until June 1948. Granted final radiological clearance in August 1948 and towed to Port Chicago, California, in January 1949. Sold to the Learner Company in Alameda, California, on 2 August 1949, and delivered on 19 August 1949.
    • LCI-618 — Sold to the Learner Company in Alameda, California, on 2 August 1949, and delivered on 19 August 1949.
    • LCI-620 — Deliberately beached before Baker shot. Towed to sea and sunk off entrance to Bikini Lagoon on 10 August 1946.

    LCMs (Landing Craft, Mechanised)

    • LCM-4 — Sunk at Bikini Atoll by Test Baker shot on 25 July 1946.
    • LCM-1 — Fate unknown.
    • LCM-2 — Fate unknown.
    • LCM-3 — Fate unknown.
    • LCM-S — Fate unknown.
    • LCM-6 — Sold for scrap in Guam on unknown date.

    LCVPs (Landing Craft Vehicles, Personnel)

    • LCVP-10 — Sunk at Bikini Atoll by Test Baker shot on 25 July 1946.
    • LCVP-7 — Fate unknown.
    • LCVP-8 — Fate unknown.
    • LCVP-9 — Fate unknown.
    • LCVP-11 — Fate unknown.
    • LCVP-12 — Fate unknown.

    Sources:

    • Crossroads Target Ships, memorandum by Capt. A. G. Nelson, May 25, 1978, DOE/CIC 48703;
    • Operational Report on Atomic Bomb Tests Able and Baker, Mooney, ed.;
    • Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Delgado et al.;
    • The Archeology of the Atomic Bomb, 173-76, Berkhouse et al.;
    • Operation Crossroads, 173-77, Shurcliff;
    • Technical Report, pp. 3.61-62, New York Times;
    • Operation Crossroads, The Atomic Tests at Bikini Atoll, pp. 317-322, Weisgall;
    • Wikipdeia.

    Operation Crossroads: Pictorial Record

    For an official pictorial record of Operation Crossroads at Bikini Atoll please view/download: Operation Crossroads: The Official Pictorial Record (Adobe PDF | 10.58 MB)

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